- 1 Why are older people at significant risk of COVID-19?
- 2 Who are at higher risk of developing serious illness from COVID-19?
- 3 Are smokers more likely to develop severe disease with COVID-19?
- 4 What are the common side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine?
- 5 Can the COVID-19 survive in drinking water?
- 6 What are the strategies implemented for the control of the COVID-19 pandemic?
- 7 What are the mild-to-moderate side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine?
- 8 What is the most likely ecological reservoirs for coronavirus disease?
- 9 What are the known coronaviruses that can infect people?
Why are older people at significant risk of COVID-19?
Although all age groups are at risk of contracting COVID-19, older people face significant risk of developing severe illness if they contract the disease due to physiological changes that come with ageing and potential underlying health conditions.
Who are at higher risk of developing serious illness from COVID-19?
Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.
Are smokers more likely to develop severe disease with COVID-19?
Tobacco smoking is a known risk factor for many respiratory infections and increases the severity of respiratory diseases. A review of studies by public health experts convened by WHO on 29 April 2020 found that smokers are more likely to develop severe disease with COVID-19, compared to non-smokers.
What are the common side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine?
Reported side effects to COVID-19 vaccines have mostly been mild to moderate and short-lasting. They include: fever, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, chills, diarrhoea, and pain at the injection site. The chances of any of these side effects following vaccination differ according to the specific COVID-19 vaccine.
Can the COVID-19 survive in drinking water?
Currently, there is no evidence about the survival of the COVID-19 virus in drinking-water or sewage.
What are the strategies implemented for the control of the COVID-19 pandemic?
Strategies in the control of an outbreak are screening, containment (or suppression), and mitigation. Screening is done with a device such as a thermometer to detect the elevated body temperature associated with fevers caused by the coronavirus. Containment is undertaken in the early stages of the outbreak and aims to trace and isolate those infected as well as introduce other measures to stop the disease from spreading. When it is no longer possible to contain the disease, efforts then move to the mitigation stage: measures are taken to slow the spread and mitigate its effects on the healthcare system and society. A combination of both containment and mitigation measures may be undertaken at the same time. Suppression requires more extreme measures so as to reverse the pandemic by reducing the basic reproduction number to less than 1.
What are the mild-to-moderate side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine?
Mild-to-moderate side effects, like a low-grade fever or muscle aches, are normal and not a cause for alarm: they are signs that the body’s immune system is responding to the vaccine, specifically the antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response), and is gearing up to fight the virus.
The most likely ecological reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2 are bats, but it is believed that the virus jumped the species barrier to humans from another intermediate animal host. This intermediate animal host could be a domestic food animal, a wild animal, or a domesticated wild animal which has not yet been identified.
Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.